The eighteenth Conference of the Parties (COP18) hold in Doha, Qatar, from 26 November to 7 December 2012. This meeting aimed find effective solutions to mitigate climate change.
The search for sustainable economic growth, the reduction of greenhouse gases, extending the Kyoto Protocol life (as the reduction of greenhouse gases in 2012 has not been reached) and the rapid implementation of agreed measures were suggested as the key points of the event. Also, Songdo, in Corea del Sur, was defined the next city which will host the Green Fund. Green Fund purposes to help developing countries face climate change effects.
Official COP18 page
RIO+20 IBERDROLA Conference
At the Rio+20 Conference, world leaders, along with thousands of participants from governments, the private sector, NGOs and other groups, will come together to shape how we can reduce poverty, advance social equity and ensure environmental protection on an ever more crowded planet to get to the future we want.
Official page Rio+20
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was created as an initiative of the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro and sets a global framework for government initiatives in combating climate change. It took effect in March 1994 and has 192 member countries. The central organism of the UNFCCC is the Conference of the Parts (COP), the vehicle for the negotiating process among governments.
Official UNFCCC page
IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change)
Created by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), this panel prepares scientific studies on climate change and its social and environmental impact. It is an inter-governmental organizational open to UN and WMO members.
Official IPCC page
United Nations Environmental Programme
Created in 1972, the UNEP provides assistance to governments, especially in developing countries, on environmental matters and advises on management and technology transfer.
Official UNEP page
World Meteorological Organization
An organism of the United Nations created in 1950, it has 188 member countries and territories. It acts as the official UN mouthpiece on the state of the atmosphere, its interaction with the ocean, the resulting climate conditions and the resulting distribution of hydraulic resources.
Official WMO page
The central feature of the Kyoto Protocol is a commitment to limit or reduce CO2 emissions.
Kyoto Protocol documents.
To achieve these objectives, the negotiators included three principle mechanisms:
- Carbon trading market: The countries that adopted commitments under the Kyoto Protocol accepted objectives on limiting or reducing emissions during 2008-2012. The emissions market allows countries with an excess of permits (for unutilized emissions) to trade them with countries with a shortfall.
- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM): Allows industrialised countries to finance clean energy projects in developing countries, in return for certificates on emissions reduction (CER). Each emission certificate is equivalent to 1 tonne of CO₂. In this way, industrialised countries can meet a significant part of their emissions reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.
- Joint implementation: Allows a country with commitments to reduce or limit emissions under Annex B to obtain emissions reductions units (ERU) from a project it is financing in another Annex B country.